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Historical Narrative

Narrative texts of all kinds were produced in Outremer, but some of the most popular were works of history that treated the events taking place in the East as Western inhabitants struggled to gain a foothold in the territories they had conquered. Many of the following texts are cumulative in nature, meaning that successive generations of writers in Outremer used one of the works below as a base text, then added or ammended the text to serve their own purposes. For this reason, scholars have often been reluctant to trace these works to a specific locale; rather, these works are instead irregular and chageable, a characteristic found among many of the French texts from Outremer.

Following are a list of Old French Historical Narratives composed in Outremer; for some of the works, it is unclear whether they originated in Outremer or in the West, but since the bulk of their subject matter concerns the history of Outremer, we have listed them here:

Chronique d’Ernoul et de Bernard le Trésorier
Annales de Terre Sainte
The Chronicle of Amadi
An Anonymous Short Chronicle of Cyprus
The Estoire de la Guerre Sainte
Gestes des Chiprois: Philip of Novara’s Estoire
Li Estoire de Jerusalem et Antioche
The Chronicle of Morea 
Chronique de la Prise de Constantinople
Faits des Romains 
Flower of the Histories of the East
Histoire Universelle
Jerusalem Continuations 
Les Chetifs 
Les Memoires de Henri de Valenciennes 
The Acre Continuation of Eracles 
The Lyon Eracles 


Peter Edbury, "Crusader Sources from the Near East (1099-1204)," in Byzantines and Crusaders in Non-Greek Sources, 1025-1204. Edited by Mary Whitby. Oxford: University Press, 2008, 23-38.

more bibliography to come